Immune checkpoint inhibitors for urothelial cancer: New hope with new options

11 Oct 2016

Platinum-based chemotherapy has been the mainstay of treatment for urothelial cancer; however, targeted biologics are now gaining prominence in this setting. Programmed death-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitors facilitate tumour infiltration by T cells, resulting in targeted destruction by the immune system.

Advancing the treatment of sarcoma

11 Oct 2016

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with three full-dose courses of the anthracycline epirubicin plus ifosfamide has a substantial clinical benefit over ‘histology-adapted’ chemotherapies in patients with localised high-risk soft tissue sarcomas (STS). These were the findings of a prospective randomised study (third futility analysis) reviewed in a Late-Breaking Abstract presentation at the ESMO 2016 Congress in Copenhagen by Dr Alessandro Gronchi from Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. In 286 adult STS patients at high risk of relapse, the probability of relapse-free survival (RFS; primary endpoint) at 46 months (median follow-up 12.34 months) was 62% with epirubicin plus ifosfamide versus 38% with histology-driven treatment (p=0.004).

Selumetinib plus docetaxel fails to show significant benefits over docetaxel alone in KRAS-mutant NSCLC

11 Oct 2016

The eagerly awaited first prospective phase III trial in KRAS-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; N=510), evaluating selumetinib plus docetaxel versus docetaxel alone as second-line treatment (‘SELECT-1’), has failed to meet its primary endpoint of improvement in progression-free survival (PFS).

Cabozantinib superior to sunitinib in phase II study of metastatic RCC

11 Oct 2016

Compared with sunitinib, first-line cabozantinib significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). These were the conclusions of a randomised, multicentre phase II trial reported in a Late-Breaking Abstract presentation by Dr Toni Choueiri from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

 

 

Meta-Analysis Confirms Superiority of Concomitant Over Induction Chemotherapy in Non-Metastatic HNSCC

10 Oct 2016

Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) achieved prolonged overall survival (OS) when concomitant chemotherapy was administered with local regional treatment (LRT) or radiotherapy, according to findings from a large meta-analysis reported at the ESMO 2016 Congress. However, timing was important, as the survival benefit was not observed with the addition of induction chemotherapy.

Significant Survival Gains from Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for High-risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma

10 Oct 2016

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with an anthracycline plus ifosfamide was associated with significant survival gains in patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the trunk or extremities who are at high-risk of recurrence, found in an interim analysis that led to the early discontinuation of a trial presented at the ESMO 2016 Congress in Copenhagen.

PD-L1 Expression as a Biomarker for Checkpoint Inhibitors Response in Patients with Advanced Melanoma

10 Oct 2016

A pooled analysis from 3 clinical trials in advanced melanoma shows that while nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab patients with ≥5% PD-L1 tumour expression have similar progression-free survival (PFS), durable response rates were higher for the combination of both agents versus nivolumab alone, across all PD-L1 expression subgroups. Given that treatment-related side effects with the nivolumab plus ipilimumab combination are higher than seen with nivolumab when used alone, there has been interest in whether PD-L1 testing could be used to better understand the benefit risk of both treatment options said Georgina Long, from the Melanoma Institute Australia.

Metformin Significantly Lowers the Risk of Cancer Progression in Patients with Diabetes and Advanced pNETs

10 Oct 2016

A retrospective evaluation of patients receiving treatment for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) showed that patients with diabetes had longer progression-free survival (PFS) than non-diabetic (normoglycaemic) patients. Patients treated with metformin for diabetes also had the lowest risk of pNETs progression compared to non-diabetic patients, according to findings reported by an Italian team of investigators at the ESMO 2016 Congress in Copenhagen.

Longer Disease-free Survival in Phase III Trial of Sunitinib as Adjuvant Treatment for Kidney Cancer

10 Oct 2016

A phase III trial of sunitinib has met its primary endpoint of disease-free survival for adjuvant treatment of high-risk renal cell carcinoma after nephrectomy, researchers reported.

Lenvatinib Shows Promising Activity in Patients with RET-Positive Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

09 Oct 2016

Lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor with activity against RET fusions, showed clinical benefit in patients with RET fusion-positive adenocarcinoma of the lung who demonstrated a disease control rate (DCR) of 76%, according to phase II study findings.

Nivolumab Maintains Function and Reduces Symptoms in Relapsed Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

09 Oct 2016

Nivolumab maintains function and reduces symptoms in treating relapsed metastatic head and neck cancer, according to results from the CheckMate 141 trial presented at the ESMO 2016 Congress and published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

First-line Pembrolizumab Plus Chemotherapy Significantly Improves Outcomes in Advanced NSCLC

09 Oct 2016

The addition of PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab to standard first-line chemotherapy for treatment-naïve advanced non-small-cell lung cancer significantly improves response rates and progression-free survival.

Ceritinib Provides Longer Progression-free Survival than Chemotherapy in Phase III Trial of ALK Rearranged Lung Cancer Treatment

09 Oct 2016

Ceritinib provides longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy in crizotinib-pre-treated patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring an ALK rearrangement, according to results of the phase III ASCEND-5 study presented at the ESMO 2016 Congress.

Significant Survival Gains with Atezolizumab vs Docetaxel for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

09 Oct 2016

Researchers reported that the first phase III study of PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab in previously-treated non-small-cell lung cancer has seen significant improvements in survival compared to standard chemotherapy.

Niraparib Significantly Improves Outcome of Ovarian Cancer Patients in Landmark Trial

08 Oct 2016

The PARP inhibitor niraparib significantly improves the outcome of platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer, according to full data from the ENGOT-OV16/NOVA trial presented for the first time at the ESMO 2016 Congress. The trial met its primary endpoint, with niraparib considerably prolonging progression-free survival compared to placebo.

Targeting Estrogen Receptor Fulvestrant Improves Progression-free Survival in Advanced Breast Cancer

08 Oct 2016

Fulvestrant significantly increases progression-free survival in women with hormone-receptor-positive advanced breast cancer, particularly those with less aggressive lower-volume disease, researchers reported.

Ipilimumab as Adjuvant Therapy Improves Overall Survival in High Risk Stage III Melanoma

08 Oct 2016

Ipilimumab as adjuvant therapy significantly improves overall survival in patients with high risk stage III melanoma, according to the EORTC 18071 phase III trial results presented for the first time.

Ribociclib Improves Progression-free Survival in Advanced Breast Cancer

08 Oct 2016

Researchers reported that the addition of the CDK4/6 inhibitor ribociclib to letrozole therapy significantly improves progression-free survival in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer.

Immunotherapy Shows Promising Results in First and Second Line Treatment of Metastatic Bladder Cancer

08 Oct 2016

Immunotherapy has shown promising results in first and second line treatment of metastatic bladder cancer in two phase II trials presented at the ESMO 2016 Congress.

Neoadjuvant Immunotherapy Prior to Surgery is Safe and Feasible in Early Lung Cancer

07 Oct 2016

Neoadjuvant immunotherapy with the PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab is safe and feasible prior to surgery for early lung cancer, researchers reported.

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